The Four Levels of a Sine Wave

V-A Levels of a Sine Wave

Because of the nature of alternating currents and voltages, the voltages are different at different positions on the sine wave: Position A = positive peak value, Position B = RMS (effective) value, Position C = average value, Position D = negative peak value.

RMS (root means square) is also called the “effective” voltage. It is equal to 70.7% of the peak-to-peak value of the sine wave. This is also called the equivalent value in a circuit that contains direct current only. It is the value that most voltmeters and ammeters read.

Excerpt from “Electricity for HVACR Technicians” available ONLINE at the Refrigeration Service Engineers Society (RSES), the HVACR Training Authority.

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